There are important statistics on the growth of the UK trade mediation market, which grew by 20% between 2016 and 2018; these are commercial mediations, not minor claims. There was also a strengthening of program-related activities, including the activities of NHS Resolution and the Court of Appeal, which meant that system-related activities accounted for 37.5% of all brokerage activities (HSFNotes, 2018). Choose an appropriate mediator based on experience, skills, credibility, costs, etc. The Mediator`s competency criteria are challenged. Among the skills, there is certainly the ability to remain neutral and move parties into a quarrel through different impasses. The issue is whether the expertise should be taken into account in the subject matter of the dispute or whether the objectivity of the mediator is indeed prejudicial. 3. Mark right or wrong against each of the following statements that describe the characteristics of the tick alliances formed by the superpowers. (a) Alliance member states provide the basis for superpowers in their respective countries. b) Member States to support the superpower in both an ideological and military strategy. c) When a nation attacks a Member State, it is considered an attack on all Member States.
(d) Superpowers help all Member States develop their own nuclear weapons. Answer: (a) True (6) True (c) True (d) False Long Answer Type Questions [6 Marks] 1. Describe the six factors responsible for the disintegration of the USSR. Or what is the “new international economic order”? You can mention the four reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972. Answer: Six factors responsible for the disintegration of the USSR . (i) The internal weaknesses of Soviet political and economic institutions did not correspond to people`s aspirations. (ii) Economic stagnation for many years led to a severe shortage of consumers and much of Soviet society began to doubt and question the system and to do so openly. (iii) The Soviet Union has also stagnated administratively and politically. The Communist Party, which had ruled the Soviet Union for more than 70 years, was not accountable to the people. Ordinary people have been alienated by slow and stifling administration, widespread corruption, the inability of the system to correct the mistakes it has made, the lack of openness to government and the centralization of authority in a vast country.
iv) The Soviet economy devoted a large part of its resources to the maintenance of a nuclear and military arsenal and the development of its satellite states in Eastern Europe and within the Soviet system. This has resulted in a huge economic burden that the system has not been able to manage. v) When Gorbachev became president, he undertook reforms and relaxed the system. He set in motion forces and expectations that few people could have foreseen and that were virtually impossible to control. There were parts of Soviet society who thought gorbachev should have moved much faster and were disappointed and impatient with his methods. Others, especially members of the Communist Party and those served by the system, expressed exactly the opposite view. In this fierce struggle, Gorbachev has lost support from all sides. (vi) The rise of nationalism and the desire for sovereignty within various republics, including Russia and the Baltic republics, Ukraine, Georgia and others, have proven to be the ultimate and most direct cause of the disintegration of the USSR. Or non-aligned countries were more than facilitators during the Cold War.
The challenge for most non-aligned countries – most of them were considered least developed countries (LDCs) – was to develop their economies and lift their populations out of poverty. Economic development has also been crucial to the independence of the new countries.